Portal ENSP - Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca Portal FIOCRUZ - Fundação Oswaldo Cruz

Cadernos de Saúde Pública

ISSN 1678-4464

36 nº.7

Rio de Janeiro, Julho 2020


REVISÃO

COVID-19 em gestantes, parto prematuro, peso ao nascer e transmissão vertical: uma revisão sistemática e metanálise

Géssyca Cavalcante de Melo, Karina Conceição Gomes Machado de Araújo

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0102-311X00087320


  • Artigo
  • Autores
  • Comentários (0)
  • Informações Suplementares




RESUMO
O número de casos confirmados de COVID-19 no mundo ultrapassou 1.684.833 em apenas quatro meses. Ainda não há evidências claras sobre os efeitos da COVID-19 em gestantes. Realizamos uma revisão sistemática e meta-análise em gestantes para esclarecer se a COVID-19 tem relação com a prematuridade e o peso ao nascer, além de resumir os resultados diagnósticos em recém-nascidos de mães com COVID-19 para investigar a possibilidade de transmissão vertical. Foram realizadas buscas em PubMed, Scopus, LILACS, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Preprints, bioRxiv e medRxiv. Como medidas de análise, utilizamos a razão de chances (OR) e a diferença média (DM). Foram calculadas estimativas sintéticas com o uso de modelos de efeitos randômicos. Trinta e oito estudos foram incluídos, com análise de dados de 279 mulheres, 60 das quais diagnosticadas com COVID-19. A meta-análise não mostrou associação significativa entre COVID-19 e parto prematuro (OR = 2,25; IC95%: 0,96, 5,31; p = 0,06; I² = 0%). Não houve relação significativa entre peso ao nascer e COVID-19 (DM = -124,16; IC95%: -260,54, 12,22; p = 0,07; I² = 0%). Entre 432 recém-nascidos, 10 testaram positivos para SARS-CoV-2. Devido às características dos estudos, o nível de evidências do estudo foi considerado muito baixo. A COVID-19 em gestantes pode não estar associada à ocorrência de prematuridade ou peso ao nascer, mas as evidências acumuladas até o momento não são conclusivas. Alguns relatos sugerem que a transmissão vertical do SARS-CoV-2 para o feto seja possível, mas as evidências ainda são incompletas.

COVID-19; Gravidez; Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas


 

Introduction

In December 2019, cases of pneumonia related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection were reported in the city of Wuhan and soon spread to other locations in China and other countries 1. In March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared a pandemic due to the global spread and the calamity reached by the infection 2. As of April 24, 2020, the total number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 infection was 2,790,986 worldwide, with 195,920 deaths in 185 regions. Current scenarios with the highest number of confirmed cases are the United States and Spain, which have a total of 890,524 and 219,764, respectively 3.

Efforts to prevent the transmission of the etiological agent, which occurs mainly through aspiration or contact with respiratory secretions of infected patients, are being adopted worldwide, with an emphasis on the social isolation of the population through the blocking of services considered non-essential 4, including the restriction or closing of elective clinical services, bars, hotels, shopping malls, shows, restaurants, schools, universities, ports, airports, and highways.

Studies have described clinical and epidemiological features of COVID-19 infection in varied groups and demonstrated greater risks for the development of pneumonia as a serious form of infection among the group of elderly people and with chronic comorbidities, especially systemic arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus and immunosuppression 5,6,7. Furthermore, an official information from China demonstrated that 8% of pregnant women with COVID-19 were severe cases and may also be particularly vulnerable to infection 8. However, results among the public of pregnant women and newborns require more detailed analysis.

There is no clear evidence regarding optimal delivery timing, the safety of vaginal delivery, or whether cesarean delivery prevents transmission to the newborn at the time of delivery 9,10,11,12,13. Studies describing the prevalence of maternal and neonatal complications 9,14,15 and a brief narrative review suggest a possible increased risk of preterm delivery in pregnant women with COVID-19 16, however there is no meta-analysis comparing the maternal and perinatal outcomes of pregnant women with COVID-19 with those without the infection. In addition, there are some recent isolated case studies reporting the occurrence of COVID-19 infection in neonates, which raises the importance of an analysis of essential information about the conditions in which the childbirth occurred and on the diagnostic methods used to investigate whether these infections are occurring in the neonatal or intrauterine period.

Thus, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to analyze whether the COVID-19 infection in pregnant women is related to premature birth and birth weight, and to summarize the diagnostic results of neonates born to mothers with COVID-19 infection for investigating the possibility of vertical transmission.

Methods

This study was conducted following the Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) statement 17. Institutional review board approval and informed consent were not required for this systematic review and meta-analysis.

Research question and eligibility criteria

The first phase of this study focused on the following question: Is there a relationship between COVID-19 in pregnant women, preterm delivery and birth weight? Studies were considered eligible if they satisfied the following criteria: (i) they were a case-control or cohort (either prospective or retrospective) study, or nested design and considered pregnant women without COVID-19 as a control group; (ii) they provided data on COVID-19 diagnoses in pregnant women, delivery, and birth weight of the newborn; (iii) COVID-19 was ascertained by laboratory analyses positive in reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or by radiological findings compatible with the disease; (iv) preterm delivery was defined as the delivery that occurs before the complete 37 weeks of pregnancy; and (v) sufficient unadjusted or adjusted data were provided to evaluate the relationship between the described factors.

The second phase of this study focused on the following question: what are the postpartum diagnostic results for SARS-CoV-2 of neonates born to women with COVID-19? Studies were considered eligible if they satisfied the following criteria: (i) they were a cross-sectional study, case-control, cohort (either prospective or retrospective), nested design, case report, or case series and (ii) they provided data on diagnostic results of neonates born to women with COVID-19.

Search strategy

A systematic search using the PubMed, Scopus, LILACS, Web of Science databases and popular public preprint servers (bioRxiv, medRxiv and Preprints) was performed to identify studies that evaluated the relationship between COVID-19 in pregnant women, preterm delivery, birth weight, and results of neonates born to mothers with COVID-19 infection. A gray-literature search was conducted using Google Scholar. Publications were identified using the terms “SARS-CoV-2”, “COVID-19”, “pregnancy”, “neonates,” and related terms. Search was performed on May 4, 2020 without language restrictions. The reference lists of all eligible studies and reviews were manually scanned to identify additional studies for inclusion. The full electronic search strategy is illustrated in the Supplementary Material (Table S1. http://cadernos.ensp.fiocruz.br/static/arquivo/suppl-csp-0873-20_4342.pdf).

Study selection

Two independent investigators (G.C.M. and K.C.G.M.A.) screened the searched studies based on each paper's title and abstract. Relevant studies were read in full text and selected according to the eligibility criteria.

Data extraction and risk of bias assessment

Two independent investigators (G.C.M. and K.C.G.M.A.) extracted data from the published reports using a predefined protocol. Information about the study design, eligible population, age distribution, inclusion and exclusion criteria, diagnosis of COVID-19, laboratory analyses, clinical features of the pregnant women with COVID-19 infection, outcome, and diagnostic results of neonates were checked. Outcome data included crude estimates, means, and standard deviations (SD). Crude data refers to the number of pregnant women who had preterm delivery and of neonates with diagnostic results. Mean/SD refers of birth weight in the following groups: pregnant women with positive and negative COVID-19 infection, and neonates born to COVID-19 positive and negative woman.

The risk of bias for individual studies was assessed by two independent reviewers using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) 18. The level of evidence of the outcomes of the meta-analysis (premature delivery, birth weight, and vertical transmission) was assessed by the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations (GRADE) by two independent reviewers.

Data analysis

The odds ratio (OR) was used as the measure of association between COVID-19 in pregnant women and preterm delivery. The OR was pooled using the random effects model assuming that the true value of the effect size of each study is sampled from a probability distribution rather than being identical. The results of birth weight were expressed as mean difference (MD); birth weight below 2,500g and a difference of 1,000g of birth weight between the groups were considered clinically important for this study 19. Data on possible cases of vertical transmission were described.

Forest plots were used to present graphically the pooled ORs and the 95%CI (95% confidence interval) for results of preterm delivery and to present the estimates the results of birth weight in graphical form. P-values lower than 0.05 were statistically significant. Heterogeneity was investigated using the Cochran Q test with a cut-off of 10% for significance 19 and quantified using the I2 index [100% x (Q-df)/Q] 20. Sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the robustness of the results related to the different case groups (pregnant women diagnosed only by RT-PCR - case group 1 - and pregnant women diagnosed by RT-PCR and imaging - case group 2) with the different control groups that one of the included studies 21 analyzed (pregnant women without COVID-19 admitted in the same period of pregnant women with COVID-19 - control group 1 - and pregnant women without COVID-19 admitted in 2019 - control group 2). Analyses were performed using Cochrane RevMan version 5.3 software (https://review-manager.software.informer.com/5.3/).

Results

Study selection

The initial search identified 1,720 reports, 173 of which were collected from PubMed, 31 from Web of Science, 103 from Scopus, 11 from LILACS, 1,320 from Google Scholar, two from Preprint database, 66 from medRxiv and 14 from bioRxiv. 38 studies were included in this systematic review: three studies 21,22,23 satisfied the eligibility criteria of the first research question and all 38 studies satisfied the eligibility criteria of the second research question (Supplementary Material - Figure S1. http://cadernos.ensp.fiocruz.br/static/arquivo/suppl-csp-0873-20_4342.pdf) 9,11,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41,42,43,44,45,46,47,48,49,50,51,52,53,54,55,56.

Study characteristics

Studies included for analysis of the first research question 21,22,23 were conducted in China and are of the case-control type. Data related to participants were extracted from medical records and in one study the data were reviewed independently by two investigators. All pregnant women included in the studies were in the third trimester of pregnancy and were admitted to the institutions in the same period, between January and March 2020. Gestational weeks of the women ranged from 33 to 41 weeks. None of the two included studies presented analysis for adjusted variables.

Data from 279 pregnant women were analyzed in this systematic review and meta-analysis. 60 patients were diagnosed with COVID-19 infection by RT-PCR or radiography; of these, 12 had vaginal delivery because neither presented any respiratory symptoms when admitted for full-term labor. Only one of the pregnant women in the studies had a severe clinical form of infection and there were no significant differences regarding neonatal complications in the groups. The median age of pregnant women in the studies was 30 years. Table 1 shows the main characteristics of the studies included by the criteria of the first research question and findings related to outcomes (delivery and birth weight).

 

 

Tab.: 1
Table 1 Main characteristics of the studies included in the analysis of the outcomes of premature birth and birth weight.

 

Among the studies included based on the criteria of the second research question, four were case-control, 11 were case report, ten were series report, 11 were cross-sectional and two were cohort. Studies (38) described cases of neonates born in the United States (3), Peru (1), Iran (1), Portugal (1), Italy (1), South Korea (1), India (1) and China (29). 432 newborns were described as born to mothers diagnosed with COVID-19 infection before delivery and were tested for SARS-COV-2.

All studies described the test method used to investigate SARS-CoV-2 infection shortly after the birth of newborns, and most of them briefly reported the care taken by the health team to prevent the virus for the neonate, such as the use of masks by the mother and health professionals, isolation, and presence of negative pressure ward. Research for SARS-CoV-2 was investigated by collecting samples of throat (n = 405), amniotic fluid (n = 45), placenta (n = 26), umbilical cord blood (n = 28), serum (n = 3), feces (n = 26), urine (n = 27), bronchoalveolar secretion (n = 1), breast milk (n = 44), vaginal (n = 4), and cervical (n = 1) secretion from the mother. The main characteristics of the studies included are shown in Table 2.

 

 

Tab.: 2
Table 2 Main characteristics of the studies included in the analysis of SARS-CoV-2 in neonates born to mothers with COVID-19.

 

Risk of bias assessment

Studies included in this systematic review stated the research question and clearly described information related to the eligibility criteria; studies used representative samples to strengthen the observational evidence on the relationship between COVID-19 infection, preterm delivery, birth weight, and vertical transmission.

Although studies clearly describe the COVID-19 diagnosis and delivery time of the women, there was potential for selection bias, as one of the study did not select a sample for the control group with admission outside the pandemic period, considering the psychological effects may interfere with delivery premature. Other study considered two control groups with differences in admission time. To ensure homogeneity between study samples, this systematic review and meta-analysis extracted data only from pregnant women in the control group admitted in the period similar to the group of women with COVID-19 infection.

Regarding the exposure criterion, studies present a high risk of bias because they did not consider confounding factors for the analysis of outcomes. The criteria for risk of bias assessment is provided in the Supplementary Material (Table S2. http://cadernos.ensp.fiocruz.br/static/arquivo/suppl-csp-0873-20_4342.pdf). From the GRADE tool, the level of evidence of this meta-analysis was considered very low for all outcomes.

COVID-19 infection and preterm delivery

Studies provided unadjusted data to examine the association between COVID-19 infection and preterm delivery in pregnant women. Preterm delivery was found in 28 cases, and ten of them occurred in pregnant women with COVID-19 infection. Overall results of this meta-analysis showed no significant association between COVID-19 infection and preterm delivery (OR = 2.25; 95%CI: 0.96, 5.31; p = 0.06). There was no between-study heterogeneity (I2 = 0%) Figure 1.

 

 

Figure 1 Forest plot showing association between preterm delivery in pregnant women with and without COVID-19 infection.

 

COVID-19 infection and birth weight

Studies reported data of birth weight for 281 neonates. Among them, 62 were born to women with COVID-19 infection. No significant relationship was found between the variables (MD = -124.16; 95%CI: -260.54, 12.22; p = 0.07). No between-study heterogeneity was found (I² = 0%) Figure 2.

 

 

Figure 2 Forest plot showing analysis of birth weight in neonates born to women with and without COVID-19 infection.

 

COVID-19 infection and possible vertical transmission

Positive results for SARS-CoV-2 were found in 16 neonates. Repeated checks on the same throat swab sample showed the result was false positive for one of these neonates born in China and the virus was undetectable in amniotic fluid and umbilical cord blood for this neonate 27. In another case in China, three newborns were infected with SARS-CoV-2 36 hours after birth; the authors did not report whether preventive measures were adopted during childbirth and described intrauterine vertical transmission might not have occurred because the viral nucleic acid tests of the placenta and cord blood in this patient were negative for virus 32. A study carried out in Italy described two cases of neonates with positive test results for SARS-CoV-2, but related to not wearing masks during breastfeeding due to the mother's diagnosis that occurred only in the postpartum period 50.

Thus, a total of ten neonates were reported in the literature 25,33,36,38,40,42,47 with positive test results for SARS-Cov-2 shortly after birth, in situations that may indicate the possibility of vertical transmission intrauterine. The details of the diagnostic results and clinical conditions of these neonates are described in Table 3.

 

 

Tab.: 3
Table 3 Main clinical features of the neonates with early SARS-CoV-2 infection in studies included.

 

Sensitivity analysis and publication bias

A sensitivity analysis was performed by iteratively adding the different case groups and control groups used in one of the studies 21 at a time to confirm our findings were not driven by any single group considered. The sensitivity analysis showed effect sizes did not change substantially with the exclusion of any group (Supplementary Material - Figures S2 and S3. http://cadernos.ensp.fiocruz.br/static/arquivo/suppl-csp-0873-20_4342.pdf).

Discussion

Pregnant women are more susceptible to respiratory pathogens 16,57 due to the anatomical structure and physiological adaptive alterations of the respiratory system that is changed during pregnancy, such as increased oxygen consumption and edema of the respiratory tract 58,59. There is established evidence that maternal viral infections can cause negative results during pregnancy due to the effect of the pathogen on women. Studies carried out with pregnant women diagnosed with other highly pathogenic coronaviruses causer of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2002 to 2003 have described this infection can increase the risk of maternal death, miscarriage, preterm delivery, and intrauterine growth restriction 60,61,62. On the other hand, vaccination against influenza has been shown to decrease the risk of preterm birth in pregnant woman exposed to influenza 63.

One possible cause of these complications can be attributed to the induction of the most severe inflammatory state that occurs as a result of viral infection. The normal pregnancy physiological changes in the third semester provide a pro-inflammatory state for the body of woman to prepare for the start of parturition 64 and a recent study indicates infection by COVID-19 is associated with an increase in cytokine production 65, which in serious situations can intensify this immune status in pregnant women 15 resulting in contractions, rupture of membranes, and delivery 66. A study that compared clinical characteristics between pregnant and non-pregnant women with SARS showed pregnancy appeared to have no effect on clinical symptoms or time to presentation after symptom onset. However, systemic complications and the need for longer hospital stay were associated with pregnancy 67.

Despite the most common adverse obstetrical outcomes associated with maternal pneumonias from all causes had related with premature rupture of membranes and preterm labor 68 and one of the studies included in our systematic review showed significant differences between premature delivery and the group of pregnant women with COVID-19 21, results of this meta-analysis showed no association between COVID-19 infection in pregnant women and preterm delivery. Similarly, birth weight of the newborns analyzed in this meta-analysis did not differ between groups. This result may be related to the fact that there are no reported cases of COVID-19 in the first trimester until this time. Thus, possible negative neonatal leavcomes related to weight and malformation are unknown.

The reason for early delivery is not well documented in the studies analyzed, despite the fact the groups had compatible ages, similar gestation periods and were treated in the same period in hospitals. Most deliveries in the studies were cesarean, but this was related to local protocols to help improve maternal lung ventilation 20,21. Experts have reported acute COVID-19 infection should not be an indication for early elective delivery unless maternal or fetal decompensation occurs during treatment 69,70. For vaginal delivery, pregnant women need to be admitted into the delivery suite for detailed assessment, labor pain management, stratification of infection control precautions, and plans for safe delivery of the fetus and the professional team 70.

In our review, ten newborns with early SARS-CoV-2 infection were found. Although most studies that analyzed neonates born to mothers with COVID-19 found RT-PCR from different samples with negative results, there are reports of neonates with early positive results in situations where strict control and prevention controls have been adopted 71 and, therefore, the possibility of vertical transmission cannot be ruled out. In a study, the laboratory results displaying inflammation and liver injury in a neonate indirectly support this possibility of vertical transmission 40.

Although most studies have used the RT-PCR diagnostic method, there is a possibility that these RT-PCR results are false negative in situations of low viremia or when neonates have already produced their antibodies. An important finding in two studies included in this review were cases with levels of IgM reagents found early in neonates. Whereas IgM antibodies does not usually cross the placental barrier due to its structure, it is possible that IgM was produced in the fetus in response to vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2. However this is not conclusive evidence, and may also be due to placental alterations allowing the passage of IgM, or false positive testing. Robust studies with evaluation of placental tissue, umbilical cord blood, serology, and essential clinical data are needed to investigate this outcome. Until this outcome is better studied, it is crucial to screen pregnant women and implement strict infection control measures during delivery and puerperium, quarantine of infected mothers, and close monitoring of neonates at risk of COVID-19.

Our findings should be interpreted with caution. The studies included in this systematic review are limited to a few patients because COVID-19 is an emerging disease and the included studies are the only ones published until the time when women with and without COVID-19 infection are compared. Also, the studies present a high risk of bias because they did not consider confounding factors for the analysis of outcomes. There may be variations in the prevalence of premature birth according to other scenarios because the populations differ in terms of socioeconomic characteristics and clinical situations unrelated to COVID-19.

However, these results can provide valid preliminary data to the synthesis of available evidence and indicate the need for further epidemiological and clinical investigation in the obstetric area in the face of the COVID-19 infection pandemic. Due to the low level of evidence of this meta-analysis, further research is very likely to have an important impact on our confidence in the estimate of effect and is likely to change the estimate found here. This systematic review was not recorded in a database of protocols, which represents a limitation.

Conclusion

COVID-19 in pregnant women may not be associated with the occurrence of preterm deliveries or the birth weight of newborn children, however the evidence to date is very uncertain. A few reports suggest that vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to newborn is possible, but the evidence is still uncertain.

References

1.   Perlman S. Another decade, another coronavirus. N Engl J Med 2020; 382:760-2.
2.   World Health Organization. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019 (accessed on 09/Apr/2020).
3.   Johns Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Center. COVID-19 data center. https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/ (accessed on 24/Apr/2020).
4.   Oliveira TC, Abranches MV, Lana RM. Food (in)security in Brazil in the context of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Cad Saúde Pública 2020; 36:e00055220.
5.   Du Y, Tu L, Zhu P, Mu M, Wang R, Yang P, et al. Clinical features of 85 fatal cases of COVID-19 from Wuhan: a retrospective observational study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2020; 201:1372-9.
6.   Gheblawi M, Wang K, Viveiros A, Nguyen Q, Zhong JC, Turner AJ, et al. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2: SARS-CoV-2 receptor and regulator of the renin-angiotensin system. Circ Res 2020; 126:1456-74.
7.   Shahid Z, Kalayanamitra R, McClafferty B, Kepko D, Ramgobin D, Patel R, et al. COVID-19 and older adults: what we know. J Am Geriatr Soc 2020; 68:926-9.
8.   Qiao J. What are the risks of COVID-19 infection in pregnant women? Lancet 2020; 395:760-2.
9.   Chen H, Guo J, Wang C, Luo F, Yu X, Zhang W, et al. Clinical characteristics and intrauterine vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection in nine pregnant women: a retrospective review of medical records. Lancet 2020; 395:809-15.
10.   Karimi-Zarchi M, Neamatzadeh H, Dastgheib SA, Abbasi H, Mirjalili SR, Behforouz A, et al. Vertical transmission of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) from infected pregnant mothers to neonates: a review. Fetal Pediatr Pathol 2020; 39:246-50.
11.   Khan S, Peng L, Siddique R, Nabi G, Nawsherwan Xue M, et al. Impact of COVID-19 infection on pregnancy outcomes and the risk of maternal-to-neonatal intrapartum transmission of COVID-19 during natural birth. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2020; 41:748-50.
12.   Wang X, Zhou Z, Zhang J, Zhu F, Tang Y, Shen X. A case of 2019 Novel Coronavirus in a pregnant woman with preterm delivery. Clin Infect Dis 2020; [Online ahead of print].
13.   Chen D, Yang H, Cao Y, Cheng W, Duan T, Fan C, et al. Expert consensus for managing pregnant women and neonates born to mothers with suspected or confirmed novel coronavirus (COVID-19) infection. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2020; 149:130-6.
14.   Di Mascio D, Khalil A, Saccone G, Rizzo G, Buca D, Liberati M, et al. Outcome of coronavirus spectrum infections (SARS, MERS, COVID-19) during pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM 2020; 2:100107.
15.   Zaighan M, Andersson O. Maternal and perinatal outcomes with COVID-19: a systematic review of 108 pregnancies. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2020; 99:823-9.
16.   Liu H, Wang LL, Zhao SJ, Kwak-Kim J, Mor G, Liao AH. Why are pregnant women susceptible to COVID-19? An immunological viewpoint. J Reprod Immunol 2020; 139:103122.
17.   Stroup DF, Berlin JA, Morton SC, Olkin I, Williamson GD, Rennie D, et al. Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology: a proposal for reporting. Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) group. JAMA 2000; 283:2008-12.
18.   Wells G, Shea B, O'Connell D, Peterson J, Welch V, Losos M, et al. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for assessing the quality of nonrandomised studies in meta-analyses. http://www.ohri.ca/programs/clinical_epidemiology/oxford.asp (accessed on 04/May/2020).
19.   World Health Organization. International Classification of Diseases 10th revision (ICD-10). http://www.who.int/classifications/icd/ICD10Volume2_en_2010pdf?ua=1 (accessed on 04/May/2020).
20.   Higgins JPT, Thompson SG. Quantifying heterogeneity in a meta-analysis. Stat Med 2002; 21:1539-58.
21.   Li N, Han L, Peng M, Lv Y, Ouyang Y, Liu K, et al. Maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnant women with COVID-19 pneumonia: a case-control study. Clin Infect Dis 2020; [Online ahead of print].
22.   Lu Z, Yan J, Min W, Ziheng C, Xiaocui Z, Jun L, et al. Analysis of pregnancy results of pregnant women during the epidemic of new coronavirus pneumonia in Hubei. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi 2020; 55:166-71.
23.   Liao J, He X, Gong Q, Yang L, Zhou C, Li J. Analysis of vaginal delivery outcomes among pregnant women in Wuhan, China during the COVID-19 pandemic. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2020; 150:53-7.
24.   Yin MZ, Zhang L, Deng GT, Han CF, Shen MX, Sun HY, et al. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection during pregnancy in china: a retrospective cohort study. medRxiv 2020; 11 apr. https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.07.20053744v1.
25.   Nie R, Wang SS, Yang Q, Fan C, Liu Y, He W, et al. Clinical features and the maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnant women with coronavirus disease 2019. medRxiv 2020; 27 mar. https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.03.22.20041061v1.
26.   Liu W, Wang Q, Zhang Q, Chen L, Chen J, Zhang B, et al. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during pregnancy: a case series. Preprints 2020; 25 feb. https://www.preprints.org/manuscript/202002.0373/v1.
27.   Liu W, Wang Li W, Zhou ZX, Liu SY, Rong ZH. Clinical characteristics of 19 neonates born to mothers with COVID-19. Front Med 2020; [Epub ahead of print].
28.   Chen Y, Peng H, Wang L, Zhao Y, Zeng LK, Gao H, et al. Infants born to mothers with a new coronavirus (COVID-19). Front Pediatr 2020; 8:104.
29.   Li Y, Zhao R, Zheng S, Chen X, Wang J, Sheng X, et al. Lack of vertical transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2, China. Emerg Infect Dis 2020; 26:1335-6.
30.   Yang P, Wang X, Liu P, Wei C, He B, Zheng J, et al. Clinical characteristics and risk assessment of newborns born to mothers with COVID-19. J Clin Virol 2020; 127:104356.
31.   Peng Z, Wang J, MoY, Duan W, Xiang G, Yi M, et al. Unlikely SARS-CoV-2 vertical transmission from mother to child: a case report. J Infect Public Health 2020; 13:818-20.
32.   Yu N, Li W, Kang Q, Xiong Z, Wang S, Lin X, et al. Clinical features and obstetric and neonatal outcomes of pregnant patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective, single-centre, descriptive study. Lancet Infect Dis 2020; 20:559-64.
33.   Alzamora MC, Paredes T, Caceres D, Webb CM, Valdez LM, La Rosa M. Severe COVID-19 during pregnancy and possible vertical transmission. Am J Perinatol 2020; [Online ahead of print].
34.   Xiong X, Wei H, Zhang Z, Chang J, Ma X, Gao X, et al. Vaginal delivery report of a healthy neonate born to a convalescent mother with COVID-19. J Med Virol 2020; [Online ahead of print].
35.   Chen S, Liao E, Cao D, Gao Y, Sun G, Shao Y. Clinical analysis of pregnant women with 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia. J Med Virol 2020; [Online ahead of print].
36.   Khan S, Jun L, Nawsherwan Siddique R, Li Y, Han G, et al. Association of COVID-19 with pregnancy outcomes in health-care workers and general women. Clin Microbiol Infect 2020; 26:788-90.
37.   Yang H, Sun G. Tang F, Peng M, Gao Y, Peng J, et al. Clinical features and outcomes of pregnant women suspected of coronavirus disease 2019. J Infect 2020; 81:e40-e44.
38.   Zeng L, Xia S, Yuan W, Yan K, Xiao F, Shao J, et al. Neonatal early-onset Infection with SARS-CoV-2 in 33 neonates born to mothers with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. JAMA Pediatr 2020; [Online ahead of print].
39.   Liu Y, Haihong C, Tang K, Guo Y. Clinical manifestations and outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy. J Infect 2020; [Online ahead of print].
40.   Dong L, Tian J, He S. Possible vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from an infected mother to her newborn. JAMA 2020; 323:1846-8.
41.   Schnettler WT, Al Ahwel Y, Suhag A. Severe ARDS in COVID-19-infected pregnancy: obstetric and intensive care considerations. Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM 2020; [Online ahead of print].
42.   Hantoushzadeh S, Shamshirsaz AA, Aleyasin A, Seferovic MD, Aski SK, et al. Maternal death due to COVID-19 disease. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2020; [Online ahead of print].
43.   Qiancheng X, Jian S, Lingling P, Lei H, Xiaogan J, Weihua L, et al. Coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnancy. Int J Infect Dis 2020; 95:376-83.
44.   Lyra J, Valente R, Rosário M, Guimarães M. Cesarean section in a pregnant woman with covid-19: first case in Portugal. Acta Med Port 2020; 33:429-31.
45.   Kelly JC, Dombrowksi M, O'neil-Callahan M, Kernberg AS, Frolova AI, Stout MJ. False-negative COVID-19 testing: considerations in obstetrical care. Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM 2020; [Online ahead of print].
46.   Xu L, Yang Q, Shi H, Lei S, Liu X, Zhu Y, et al. Clinical presentations and outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infected pneumonia in pregnant women and health status of their neonates. Sci Bull (Beijing) 2020; [Epub ahead of print].
47.   Hu X, Gao J, Luo X, Feng L, Liu W, Chen J, et al. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vertical transmission in neonates born to mothers with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. Obstet Gynecol 2020; [Online ahead of print].
48.   Lu D, Sang L, Du S, Li T, Chang Y, Yang XA. Asymptomatic COVID-19 infection in late pregnancy indicated no vertical transmission. J Med Virol 2020; [Epub ahead of print].
49.   Yan J, Guo J, Fan C, Juan J, Yu X, Li J, et al. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in pregnant women: a report based on 116 cases. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2020; [Epub ahead of print].
50.   Ferrazzi E, Frigerio L, Savasi V, Vergani P, Prefumo F, Barresi S, et al. Vaginal delivery in SARS-CoV-2 infected pregnant women in Northern Italy: a retrospective analysis. BJOG 2020; [Online ahead of print].
51.   Lee DH, Lee J, Kim E, Woo K, Park HY, An J. Emergency cesarean section on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS- CoV-2) confirmed patient. Korean J Anesthesiol 2020; [Online ahead of print].
52.   Breslin N, Baptiste C, Gyamfi-Bannerman C, Miller R, Martinez R, Bernstein K, et al. COVID-19 infection among asymptomatic and symptomatic pregnant women: two weeks of confirmed presentations to an affiliated pair of New York City hospitals. Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM 2020; [Online ahead of print].
53.   Sharma KA, Kumari R, Kachhawa G, Chhabra A, Agarwal R, Sharma A, et al. Management of the first patient with confirmed COVID-19 in pregnancy in India: from guidelines to frontlines. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2020; 150:116-8.
54.   Chen S, Huang B, Luo DJ, Li X, Yang F, Zhao Y, et al. Pregnant women with new coronavirus infection: a clinical characteristics and placental pathological analysis of three cases. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi 2020; 49:E005.
55.   Zhu H, Wang L, Fang C, Peng S, Zhang L, Chang G, et al. Clinical analysis of 10 neonates born to mothers with 2019-nCoV pneumonia. Transl Pediatr 2020; 9:51-60.
56.   Fan C, Lei D, Fang C, Li C, Wang M, Liu Y, et al. Perinatal transmission of COVID-19 associated SARS-CoV-2: should we worry? Clin Infect Dis 2020; [Online ahead of print].
57.   Schwartz DA, Graham AL. Potential maternal and infant outcomes from (Wuhan) coronavirus 2019-nCoV infecting pregnant women: lessons from SARS, MERS, and other human coronavirus infections. Viruses 2020; 12:194.
58.   Zhao X, Jiang Y, Zhao Y, Xi H, Liu C, Qu F, et al. Analysis of the susceptibility to COVID-19 in pregnancy and recommendations on potential drug screening. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2020; [Epub ahead of print].
59.   Vlachodimitropoulou Koumoutsea E, Vivanti AJ, Shehata N, Benachi A, Le Gouez A, Desconclois C, et al. COVID19 and acute coagulopathy in pregnancy. J Thromb Haemost 2020; [Online ahead of print].
60.   Ng PC, So KW, Leung TF, Cheng FW, Lyon DJ, Wong W, et al. Infection control for SARS in a tertiary neonatal centre. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2003; 88:F405-9.
61.   Wong SF, Chow KM, Swiet M. Severe acute respiratory syndrome and pregnancy. BJOG 2003; 110:641-2.
62.   Wong SF, Chow KM, Leung TN, Ng WF, Ng TK, Shek CC, et al. Pregnancy and perinatal outcomes of women with severe acute respiratory syndrome. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191:292-7.
63.   Nunes MC, Aqil AR, Omer SB, Madhi SA. The effects of influenza vaccination during pregnancy on birth outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Perinatol 2016; 33:1104-14.
64.   Mor G, Aldo P, Alvero AB. The unique immunological and microbial aspects of pregnancy. Nat Rev Immunol 2017; 17:469-82.
65.   Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet 2020; 395:497-506.
66.   Jacobsson B, Pettersson K, Modzelewska D, Abrahamsson T, Bergman L, Håkansson S. Preterm delivery: an overview on epidemiology, pathophysiology and consequences for the individual and the society. Lakartidningen 2019; 116:FR6F.
67.   Lam CM, Wong SF, Leung TN, Chow KM, Yu WC, Wong TY, et al. A case-controlled study comparing clinical course and outcomes of pregnant and non-pregnant women with severe acute respiratory syndrome. BJOG 2004; 111:771-4.
68.   Ashokka B, Mai-Han L, Tan CH, Su LL, Young BE, Lye DC, et al. Care of the pregnant woman with COVID-19 in labor and delivery: anesthesia, emergency cesarean delivery, differential diagnosis in the acutely ill parturient, care of the newborn, and protection of the healthcare personnel. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2020; [Epub ahead of print].
69.   Tang P, Wang J, Song Y. Characteristics and pregnancy outcomes of patients with severe pneumonia complicating pregnancy: a retrospective study of 12 cases and a literature review. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2018; 18:434.
70.   Browne PC, Linfert JB, Perez-Jorge E. Successful treatment of preterm labor in association with acute COVID-19 infection. Am J Perinatol 2020; [Online ahead of print].
71.   Dotters-Katz SK, Hughes BL. Considerations for obstetric care during the COVID-19 pandemic. Am J Perinatol 2020; [Online ahead of print].

CreativeCommons
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License

 


Cadernos de Saúde Pública | Reports in Public Health

Rua Leopoldo Bulhões 1480 - Rio de Janeiro RJ 21041-210 Brasil

Secretaria Editorial +55 21 2598-2511.
cadernos@fiocruz.br

  • APOIO:

©2015 | Cadernos de Saúde Pública - Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca | Fundação Oswaldo Cruz. - Ministério da Saúde Governo Federal | Desenvolvido por Riocom Design